Covid 19;the global pandemic has reached new extremes in many countries. India, for instance, is going through a challenging period. But as for the United States of America, From 3 January 2020 and 11:13am CEST to 29 April 2021, there were 3,18,35,314 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the United States of America, with 5,67,971 deaths, according to WHO. A total of 22,32,93,713 vaccine doses had been delivered as of 22 April 2021.
Covid 19 And Human Genes
Researchers recently identified a group of human genes that defend against SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19. Understanding which genes aid in viral infection management will certainly help researchers’ knowledge of disease severity factors and also offer potential therapeutic options. The genes of concern are similar to interferons, which are the body’s first line of defense against viruses.
As the pandemic took traction over the world population, studies and research projects were also being conducted, deciphering the virus in order to defeat it.
This study was published in the journal Molecular Cell.
Sumit K. Chanda, Ph.D., professor, and director of the Immunity and Pathogenesis Program at Sanford Burnham Prebys and lead author of the report, says, “We wanted to gain a better understanding of the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2, including what drives a strong or poor response to infection.”
We’ve learned more about how the virus takes advantage of the human cells it infects, but we’re still looking for its Achilles’ heel so that we can create better antivirals.”
Clinicians have now discovered that some of the more serious cases of COVID-19 were caused by a poor interferon response to SARS-CoV-2 infection soon after the pandemic began.
This information clicked to Chanda and his colleagues, which made them understand and look for human genes that are activated by interferons, known as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), and which function to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The researchers were able to establish laboratory experiments to classify the ISGs that regulate viral replication in COVID-19 based on information gained from SARS-CoV-1, the virus that triggered a deadly but brief outbreak of disease from 2002 to 2004 and understanding that it was close to SARS-CoV-2.
“We discovered that 65 ISGs dominated SARS-CoV-2 infection, including those that inhibited the virus’s ability to invade cells, some that blocked the virus’s lifeblood, RNA, and a cluster of genes that inhibited virus assembly,” says Chanda.
Through this study, we found out, What was also intriguing was the fact that some of the ISGs demonstrated dominance over viruses that were unrelated to each other, such as seasonal flu, West Nile, and HIV, which contributes to AIDS.”
According to Dr. Laura, “We found eight ISGs that impaired both SARS-CoV-1 and CoV-2 replication in the subcellular compartment essential for protein packing, indicating that this susceptible site could be exploited to clear a viral infection.”
Laura Martin-Sancho, Ph.D., a senior postdoctoral associate in the Chanda lab and the study’s first reviewer.This is significant material, but we also need to learn more about the virus’s genetics and determine if genetic heterogeneity within these ISGs correlates with COVID-19 intensity.”
The researchers will then investigate the genetics of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, which continue to develop and endanger vaccine effectiveness.
Martin-Sancho mentions that they have already begun collecting versions for laboratory testing.
Vaccinations have started containing the pandemic. “We should not let fundamental science hamper that progress,” added Chanda.
Looking at the current scenario of America, we can say, “We’ve progressed which is all well and fast because of investments in fundamental science at Sanford Burnham Prebys and elsewhere, and our sustained efforts will be particularly critical when, not if, another viral epidemic happens.”